The church is a significant landmark in Charlton Kings, contributing to the strong historic village character of the area and forming an important focal point in the St Mary’s (Charlton Kings) Conservation Area. The church is situated at the center of a large triangular-shaped churchyard bounded by Horsefair Street, Church Street, and New Street, and contains numerous statutorily listed monuments, including a C15 or earlier churchyard cross.

The mown churchyard is enclosed by a Grade II listed stone-built dwarf boundary wall with tall iron railings and substantial stone piers (by G.W. Sadler, 1854); these are an important element of the church’s setting and of the streetscape generally. There is an early C20 lychgate at the north-western end of the churchyard and four sets of wrought-iron gates around the perimeter. The churchyard is well maintained and contains a large number of trees and bushes, including Lawson cypress, Blue Atlas cedar, and common and Irish yews. It is an attractive green open space crossed by a number of footpaths allowing peaceful short-cuts between the surrounding streets.

The opposite side of Church Street is lined with two-story semi-detached and terraced houses of varying date and by the Charlton Kings Club and Institute. There is a war memorial close to the church at the junction of Horsefair Street and Church Street, and the Grade II listed St Mary’s Church Hall stands adjacent to a terrace of 1960s houses on the south-eastern side of New Street. A small number of houses, a hedge-lined garden, and a car park lie opposite the churchyard on Horsefair Street, giving this part of the road a less enclosed feel.

There is clearly potential for significant archaeology relating to the C12 church and burials associated with the C12 and later medieval church.